National Institute of Standards and Technology

Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.

  • Today and throughout history, technology influences and is influenced by such societal issues/factors as economics, values, ethics, institutions, groups, the environment, government, among others.
  • This flaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the flakes, either of which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers.
  • TOKYO — Armed with a new law that boosts U.S. support for computer chip manufacturing, Vice President Kamala Harris said the administration was looking for new investments and partnerships as she sat down with Japanese technology executives on Wednesday.
  • Born and raised in El Salvador, Diana Velasquez decided to pursue a degree in engineering with the goal of helping others obtain improved health care while improving standard processes.

The eleventh and final ancient Roman aqueduct was built in 226 CE. Put together, the Roman aqueducts extended over 450 km, but less than 70 km of this was above ground and supported by arches. A bathtub virtually identical to modern ones was unearthed at the Palace of Knossos. Several Minoan private homes also had toilets, which could be flushed by pouring water down the drain. The ancient Romans had many public flush toilets, which emptied into an extensive sewage system. The primary sewer in Rome was the Cloaca Maxima; construction began on it in the sixth century BCE and it is still in use today.

Japan to pay up to $320M for US companys chip production

Early humans using the wheel allowed for the transportation of heavy material to be faster and easier. The first wheel was found in ancient Mesopotamia, and is thought to be used as a potter’s wheel to throw clay pots. Ancient Egypt and India saw the invention of the shaduf, a hand-operated lever and fulcrum used to lift water to irrigate crops. Ancient Greek philosopher Archimedes was the first to record simple machines, including pulleys, levers, and inclined planes, all used as machines to lessen the work needed to accomplish a task. During the Industrial Revolution, mechanical principles were used in the invention of engines, which use a system of pistons to generate large amounts of force needed to move trains and power factories. In modern times, mechanical technology is employed to accomplish all sorts of engineering tasks, such as running our cars, lifting heavy objects, and transporting goods.

The Space Age began with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, and later the launch of crewed missions to the moon in the 1960s. Organized efforts to search for extraterrestrial intelligence have used radio telescopes to detect signs of technology use, or technosignatures, given off by alien civilizations. In medicine, new technologies were developed for diagnosis , treatment , and research . The earliest known use of wind power is the sailing ship; the earliest record of a ship under sail is that of a Nile boat dating to around 7,000 BCE.


We do this by empowering students from diverse backgrounds—the innovators and leaders of the future—with an extraordinary technical education and guaranteed hands-on experiences that enable them to achieve career success and create change. Reuters, the news and media division of Thomson Reuters, is the world’s largest multimedia news provider, reaching billions of people worldwide every day. Reuters provides business, financial, national and international news to professionals via desktop terminals, the world’s media organizations, industry events and directly to consumers. Since technology can be so simple or so complex, there are many types of technology.

ICT and other tech sectors have spawned a range of transversal technologies, which are spreading horizontally across sectors and determining competitive dynamics. This research looks at ten transversal technologies and finds that Europe leads on only two of the ten. If Europe is not successful in competing in these technologies, it could also lose its strongholds in traditional industries.

Tim Cook: No excuse for lack of women in tech

Taken to extreme, some argue that technicism is the belief that humanity will ultimately be able to control the entirety of existence using technology. In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. Some, such as Monsma, connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority. The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation, war, and the production of pottery . It didn’t take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast potters’ wheels enabled early mass production of pottery.

Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan suggest that technological society will inevitably deprive us of our freedom and psychological health. Could Europe amplify the pool of scale-up capital and consider pooling more public procurement and R&D support among a coalition of the willing? Europe might consider increasing development support to Central, Eastern, and parts of Southern Europe. Mechanical technology is one of the simplest forms of technology, both in its application and in its design. Mechanical technology is the use of simple machines to solve problems.

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided, for the first time, the ability to smelt and forge gold, copper, silver, and lead – native metals found in relatively pure form in nature. The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times . Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass . The first use of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1,800 BCE. Learn more about Georgia Tech’s academics, admissions, campus life, costs, and aid. Public resistance to nuclear power was strong when Professor Janne Wallenius began developing the technology for small, lead-cooled nuclear reactors.